What are the types of vacuum pumps and their working principles?

    Kay Blowers

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    What are vacuum pumps?


    Vacuum pumps are equipment capable of generating a partial or low-pressure vacuum by pushing gas or air molecules out of a sealed chamber. Vacuum pumps are used in many industrial applications.


    Applications of vacuum pumps


    Many medical devices work on the principle of vacuum creation. The vacuum pumps remove gas from a sealed volume to leave a partial vacuum. 


    They are used in medical applications for radiation therapy and surgery. A more recent industrial application has vacuum pumps playing a pivotal role in the new oil extraction technology, transformer oil removal and cleaning.


    Other applications include vacuum technology for paper and sugar plants, bottle and plastic industries, the pharmaceutical industry, cement, fertilizer and sewage treatment chemical processes.


    Types of vacuum pumps


    There are three kinds of vacuum pumps


    1. Positive displacement pumps
    2. Momentum transfer pumps
    3. Entrapment pumps


    Working principle of vacuum pump


    The best quality vacuum blower available for an affordable price has two major components- a motor and compressor connected through the shaft. For large systems, two-stage compressors are installed.


    A vacuum pump has the following components.


    1. Inlet: Inlet is attached where a vacuum is to be created. E.g., a Vacuum is made in the refrigeration system by connecting it to the inlet.


    2. Exhaust outlet: The exhaust outlet is connected to push the molecules outside. For a vacuum pump, the air is induced inside the inlet and exhausted outside the exhaust outlet.


    3. Exhaust valve: On the creation of low pressure, the valve opens to induce air outside.


    4. Stator: The stator forms the outer part of the pump where the compressor is placed. It is made of cast iron to support the compressor system. In this part, the three-phase coils are placed, which forms the magnetic field for the motor to work.


    1. Spring: It is connected to a shaft which rotates inside the stator. When the motor runs, it turns the springs along with the blades and rotor.


    2. Pump oil and oil reservoir: Oil is used for cooling and insulation


    How does the vacuum pump work?


    A vacuum is a space without any matter where the gaseous pressure inside the volume is below atmospheric pressure. The main function of the vacuum pump is to alter the pressure in a contained space and creates a full or partial vacuum, either chemically or mechanically.


    The vacuum pump equalizes the pressure across the connected region as gas molecules flow to fill the entire area of that volume. With a new low-pressure space, gas will naturally flow from a high-pressure area to a new area of low pressure until they are of equal pressure.


    This vacuum process is created by not sucking gases but pushing molecules. Vacuum pumps move the gas molecules from one area and create a vacuum.


    Wrap up


    With the advent of new technology, the scope of vacuum pump technology has dramatically increased. Many instruments and machines use vacuum pumps in all or part of their systems to perform vital operations.