To Kill a Mockingbird Book By Harper Lee (PDF-Summary-Review-Online Reading-Download)

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To Kill a Mockingbird Novel By Harper Lee published in 1960. Instantly successful, widely read in high schools and high schools in the United States, has become a classic in modern American literature, winning the Pulitzer Prize. The plot and the characters are freely based on Lee's observations about his family, his neighbors and an event that occurred near his hometown of Monroeville, Alabama, in 1936, when he was ten years old.

Despite dealing with the serious problems of rape and racial inequality, the novel is known for its warmth and humor. Atticus Finch, the narrator's father, has served as a moral hero for many readers and as a model of integrity for lawyers. Historian J. Crespino explains: "In the twentieth century, Killing a Mockingbird is probably the most widely read book on race in the United States and its main character, Atticus Finch, the most enduring fictional image of racial heroism."

As a gothic novel from the south and Bildungsroman, the main themes of To Kill a Mockingbird involve racial injustice and the destruction of innocence. Scholars have noted that Lee also addresses issues of class, courage, compassion and gender roles in the deep south. The book is widely taught in schools in the United States with lessons that emphasize tolerance and denounce prejudices. Despite his issues, Killing a Mockingbird has been subject to campaigns to expel public classrooms, often questioned by the use of racial epithets.

The reaction to the novel varied widely with the publication. Despite the quantity of copies sold and their widespread use in education, literary analysis is scarce. Author Mary McDonough Murphy, who collected individual impressions of To Kill a Mockingbird from various authors and public figures, calls the book "a surprising phenomenon." In 2006, British librarians classified the book ahead of the Bible as "all adults should read before they die." It was adapted in an Academy Award-winning film in 1962 by director Robert Mulligan, with a screenplay by Horton Foote. Since 1990, a play based on the novel has been performed annually in the hometown of Harper Lee.

To Kill a Mockingbird was Lee's only published book until Go Set a Watchman, an earlier draft of To Kill a Mockingbird, was published on July 14, 2015. Lee continued to respond to the impact of his work until his death in February of 2016, although she had rejected any personal advertising for her or the novel since 1964.

Author Harper Lee
Country United States
Language English
Genre Southern GothicBildungsroman
Published July 11, 1960
Publisher J. B. Lippincott & Co.
Pages 281

Book Summary
The story, told by Jean Louise Finch, six, takes place over three years (1933–35) of the Great Depression in the fictional "old and tired town" of Maycomb, Alabama, the seat of Maycomb County. Jean Louise Finch, nicknamed Scout, lives with his older brother Jeremy, nicknamed Jem, and his widowed father Atticus, a middle-aged lawyer. Jem and Scout become friends with a boy named Dill, who visits Maycomb to stay with his aunt every summer. The three children are terrified but fascinated by their neighbor, the lonely Arthur "Boo" Radley. Maycomb adults hesitate to talk about Boo, and few of them have seen him for many years. Children feed each other with rumors about his appearance and reasons to remain hidden and fantasize about how to get him out of his house. After two summers of friendship with Dill, Scout and Jem discover that someone is leaving small gifts in a tree outside Radley's place. Several times, the mysterious Boo makes gestures of affection to children, but, to his disappointment, he never appears in person.

Judge Taylor names Atticus to defend Tom Robinson, a black man accused of raping a young white woman, Mayella Ewell. Although many of Maycomb's citizens disapprove, Atticus agrees to defend Tom as best he can. Other children make fun of Jem and Scout for Atticus' actions, calling him a "lover of blacks." Scout is tempted to defend his father's honor by fighting, even though he has told him not to. One night, Atticus confronts a group of men trying to lynch Tom. This crisis is unexpectedly avoided: Scout, Jem, and Dill appear, and Scout, without realizing it, breaks the mafia's mentality by recognizing and speaking with the father of a classmate, and the possible lynchers disperse.

Atticus does not want Jem and Scout to be present at the trial of Tom Robinson. There are no seats available on the main floor, but Reverend Sykes invites Jem, Scout, and Dill to watch from the colorful balcony. Atticus states that Mayella and Bob Ewell are lying. It is revealed that Mayella made sexual advances towards Tom, which resulted in her father hitting her. The townspeople refer to the Ewells as "white trash" that cannot be trusted, but the jury condemns Tom independently. Jem's faith in justice is severely shaken. Atticus is hoping he can revoke the verdict, but Tom is shot and killed while trying to escape from prison.

Despite Tom's conviction, Bob Ewell is humiliated by the events of the trial, Atticus explains that "he destroyed the last pinch of credibility [of Ewell] in that trial." Ewell promises revenge, spitting on Atticus' face, trying to enter the judge's house and threatening Tom Robinson's widow. Finally, he attacks Jem and Scout as they walk home on a dark night after the school's Halloween contest. Jem suffers a broken arm in the fight, but in the midst of the confusion, someone comes to the rescue of the children. The mysterious man takes Jem home, where Scout realizes that he is Boo Radley.

Sheriff Tate arrives and discovers Ewell killed by a knife wound. Atticus believes that Jem was responsible, but Tate is sure it was Boo. The sheriff decides that to protect Boo's privacy, he will report that Ewell simply fell on his own knife during the attack. Boo asks Scout to accompany him to his house. After she says goodbye to him at the door of his house, he disappears, so Scout never sees him again. While standing on the Radley porch, Scout imagines life from Boo's perspective.

Book Club Questions

Book Review
The unforgettable novel of a childhood in a quiet southern town and the crisis of conscience that shook it, To Kill A Mockingbird became an instant sales success and a critical success when it was first published in 1960. Then he won the prize Pulitzer in 1961 and then became an Academy Award-winning movie, also a classic.

Compassionate, dramatic and deeply moving, To Kill A Mockingbird takes readers to the roots of human behavior: innocence and experience, kindness and cruelty, love and hate, humor and pathos. Now with more than 15 million copies printed and translated into forty languages, this regional story of a young woman from Alabama claims universal appeal. Harper Lee always considered his book as a simple love story. Today it is considered a masterpiece of American literature.

About The Author
Nelle Harper Lee is known for her Pulitzer Prize-winning novel To Kill a Mockingbird, her only major work. In 1999, it was voted "Best Novel of the Century" in a poll by Library Journal. Ms. Lee was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom for her contribution to literature in 2007. Her father was a lawyer who served in the Alabama state legislature from 1926 to 1938. As a child, Lee was a tomboy and enjoyed the friendship of her schoolmate, Truman Capote. After completing To Kill a Mockingbird, Lee accompanied Capote to Holcomb, Kansas, to assist him in researching his bestselling book, In Cold Blood. Since the publication of To Kill a Mockingbird, Lee has granted very few requests for interviews or public appearances and has published no other novels.

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