Hamlet by William Shakespeare

    Abdulaziz Sobh

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    The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, or more simply Hamlet, is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1599 and 1601. The play, set in Denmark, tells how Prince Hamlet takes revenge on his uncle Claudius, who murdered Hamlet's father, the King, and then took the throne and married Gertrude, Hamlet's mother. The work vividly depicts the course of real and feigned madness - from overwhelming pain to boiling rage - and explores issues of betrayal, revenge, incest and moral corruption.
    The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, often shortened to Hamlet (/ hæmlɪt /), is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare on an uncertain date between 1599 and 1602. Located in Denmark, the play dramatizes the vengeance that Prince Hamlet is called to cause. about his uncle, Claudius, because of the ghost of Hamlet's father, King Hamlet. Claudius had murdered his own brother and had seized the throne, he had also married the widow of his late brother.
    Hamlet is the longest work of Shakespeare, and is considered one of the most powerful and influential works of world literature, with a story capable of "retelling and apparently infinitely adapting to others." It was probably one of Shakespeare's most popular works during his lifetime and is still among the most performed, leading the list of performances of the Royal Shakespeare Company and its predecessors in Stratford-upon-Avon since 1879. It has inspired many other writers, by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Charles Dickens to James Joyce and Iris Murdoch, and has been described as "the most filmed story in the world after Cinderella".
    The story of Shakespeare's Hamlet was derived from the legend of Amleth, preserved by the thirteenth-century chronicler Saxo Grammaticus in his Gesta Danorum, as later recounted by the sixteenth-century scholar François de Belleforest. Shakespeare may also have resorted to an earlier Elizabethan work known as the Ur-Hamlet, although some scholars believe that he himself wrote the Ur-Hamlet, and then revised it to create the version of Hamlet we have now. He almost certainly wrote his version of the lead role of his fellow actor, Richard Burbage, the main tragedian of the Shakespeare era. In the 400 years since its creation, the role has been performed by numerous acclaimed actors in each successive century.
    There are three different early versions of the work: the First Quarto (Q1, 1603); the second Quarto (Q2, 1604); and the first folio (F1, 1623). Each version includes lines and entire scenes that are missing from the others. The structure of the work and the depth of the characterization have inspired a lot of critical scrutinies. One example is the centennial debate over Hamlet's doubt about killing his uncle, which some see as a simple argument for prolonging the action, but which others argue is a dramatization of the complex philosophical and ethical issues surrounding cold-blooded murder. , calculated revenge and frustrated desire. More recently, psychoanalytic critics have examined Hamlet's unconscious desires, while feminist critics have re-evaluated and attempted to rehabilitate the often defamed characters of Ophelia and Gertrude.